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Research & Evidence: Overall Outcomes & ROI

Only through a combination of timely access to prevention, early detection and treatment will more lives – and money – be saved.
MAKING THE BUSINESS CASE: How Engaging Employees in Preventive Care Can Reduce Healthcare Costs


Bruce Pyenson, FSA, MAAA, and Patricia A. Zenner, RN. "Cancer Screening: Payer Cost/Benefit thru Employee Benefits Programs." Milliman: Consultants and Actuaries, November 18, 2005.

This paper demonstrates that covering and promoting full compliance with established screening recommendations thru employer sponsored programs is low cost and cost effective for employee benefit programs.

Fitch, Kate, RN MEd; Kosuke Iwakaki, FIAJ, MAAA; Bruce Pyneson, FSA, MAAA. "Covering Smoking Cessation as a Health Benefit: A Case for Employers ." Milliman: Consultants and Actuaries, August 1, 2005.

Smoking is about choices.  An individual can choose to try once again to quit, or an employer can choose to help those individuals quit by funding smoking cessation programs.  This report provides information so employers can make informed choices based on the costs and benefits of smoking cessation programs – and compare these to other routinely provided benefits.  


Arnold Barnett, PhD; Howard Birnbaum, PhD; Pierre-Yves Cremieux, PhD; A. Mark Fendrick, MD; and Mitchell Slavin, PharmD. "The Costs of Cancer to a Major Employer in the United States: A Case-Control Analysis." The American Journal of Managed Care, November 2000.

Reliable data on the costs and outcomes of different healthcare interventions are essential for efficient distribution of healthcare resources and evaluation of quality of healthcare.The National Institutes of Health estimates total annual costs for cancer in the United States at $107 billion annually. These cancer costs represented roughly 5% of all healthcare expenditures in 1995. These high healthcare costs translate into significantexpenses for US employers. As cancer treatment improves and the number of patients in remission or recovery increases, the management of cancer care is becoming increasingly important. This trend has led managed care organizations to focus on assessing the likely costs of cancer care and outcomes for different types of cancer.