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Research & Evidence: Statistics

Individuals with lower educational attainment have higher prevalence of modifiable cancer risk factors and lower prevalence of screening versus their more educated counterparts.
Current Prevalence of Major Cancer Risk Factors and Screening Test Use in the United States: Disparities by Education and Race/Ethnicity
Sauer, Ann Goding; Rebecca L. Siegel; Ahmedin Jemal; and Stacey A. Fedewa
American Association for Cancer Research

2020

Mariotto, Angela B.; Lindsey Enewold; Jingxuan Zhao; Christopher A. Zeruto; K. Robin Yabroff. "Medical Care Costs Associated with Cancer Survivorship in the United States." Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, June 10, 2020.

Background: The prevalence of cancer survivorship is increasing. In this study, we provide contemporary population–based estimates and projections of the overall and site-specific cancer-attributable medical care costs in the United States.

"Annual Report to the Nation: Cancer death rates continue to decline." National Cancer Institute, March 12, 2020.

The Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer finds that cancer death rates continued to decline from 2001 to 2017 in the United States for all cancer sites combined.

Canfell, DPhil, Karen; Prof. Jane J. Kim PhD; Prof Marc Brisson, PhD; Adam Keane, PhD; Kate T. Simmons, PhD; Michael Caruana, DPhil. "Mortality impact of achieving WHO cervical cancer elimination targets: a comparative modelling analysis in 78 low-income and lower-middle-income countries." The Lancet, January 30, 2020.

WHO is developing a global strategy towards eliminating cervical cancer as a public health problem, which proposes an elimination threshold of four cases per 100 000 women and includes 2030 triple-intervention coverage targets for scale-up of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to 90%, twice-lifetime cervical screening to 70%, and treatment of pre-invasive lesions and invasive cancer to 90%. We assessed the impact of achieving the 90–70–90 triple-intervention targets on cervical cancer mortality and deaths averted over the next century. We also assessed the potential for the elimination initiative to support target 3.4 of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)—a one-third reduction in premature mortality from non-communicable diseases by 2030.

"Cancer Facts & Figures 2020." American Cancer Society, 2020.

Cancer Facts & Figures 2020 is an educational companion for Cancer Statistics 2020, a scientific paper published in the American Cancer Society journal, CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. The Facts & Figures annual report provides:

  • Estimated numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in 2020 (In 2020, there will be an estimated 1.8 million new cancer cases diagnosed and 606,520 cancer deaths in the United States.)
  • Current cancer incidence, mortality, and survival statistics
  • Information on cancer symptoms, risk factors, early detection, and treatmen

2019

Sauer, Ann Goding; Rebecca L. Siegel; Ahmedin Jemal; and Stacey A. Fedewa. "Current Prevalence of Major Cancer Risk Factors and Screening Test Use in the United States: Disparities by Education and Race/Ethnicity." American Association for Cancer Research, April 2019.

Overall cancer death rates in the United States have declined since 1990. The decline could be accelerated by eliminating socioeconomic and racial disparities in major risk factors and screening utilization. We provide an updated review of the prevalence of modifiable cancer risk factors, screening, and vaccination for U.S. adults, focusing on differences by educational attainment and race/ethnicity. Individuals with lower educational attainment have higher prevalence of modifiable cancer risk factors and lower prevalence of screening versus their more educated counterparts. Smoking prevalence is 6-fold higher among males without a high school (HS) education than female college graduates. Nearly half of women without a college degree are obese versus about one third of college graduates. Over 50% of black and Hispanic women are obese compared with 38% of whites and 15% of Asians. Breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening utilization is 20% to 30% lower among those with <HS education compared with college graduates. Screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers is also lower among Hispanics, Asians, and American Indians/Alaska Natives relative to whites and blacks. Enhanced, multilevel efforts are needed to further reduce the prevalence of modifiable risk factors and improve screening and vaccination, particularly among those with lower socioeconomic status and racial/ethnic minorities.

"Cancer Facts & Figures 2019." American Cancer Society, January 8, 2019.

Estimated numbers of new cancer cases for 2019, excluding basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers and in situ carcinomas except urinary bladder. Estimates are not available for Puerto Rico.

Note: State estimates are offered as a rough guide and should be interpreted with caution. State estimates may not add to US total due to rounding.

Siegel, Rebecca L., MPH; Kimbertly D. Miller, MPH; Ahmedin Jemal, DVM, PhD. "Cancer Statistics, 2019." Wiley Online Library, January 8, 2019.

Cancer is a major public health problem worldwide and is the second leading cause of death in the United States. In this article, we provide the estimated numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in 2019 in the United States nationally and for each state, as well as a comprehensive overview of cancer occurrence based on the most  current population-based data for cancer incidence through 2015 and for mortality through 2016. We also estimate the total number of deaths averted because of the continuous decline in cancer death rates since the early 1990s and analyze cancer mortality rates by county-level poverty.

2018

"Cancer Facts & Figures 2018." American Cancer Society, January 2018.

Estimated numbers of new cancer cases for 2018, excluding basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers and in situ carcinomas except urinary bladder. Estimates are not available for Puerto Rico.

Note: State estimates are offered as a rough guide and should be interpreted with caution. State estimates may not add to US total due to rounding.

Siegel, Rebecca L., MPH; Kimbertly D. Miller, MPH; Ahmedin Jemal, DVM, PhD. "Cancer Statistics, 2018." Wiley Online Library, January 4, 2018.

Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival. 

Cancer is a major public health problem worldwide and is the second leading cause of death in the United States. In this article, we provide the estimated numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in 2018 in the United States nationally and for each state, as well as a comprehensive overview of cancer occurrence based on the most current population‐based data for cancer incidence through 2014 and for mortality through 2015. We also estimate the total number of deaths averted as a result of the continual decline in cancer death rates since the early 1990s and quantify the black‐white disparity in cancer mortality by state and age based on the actual number of reported cancer deaths in 2015.

2017

"AACR Cancer Progress Report." Philadelphia: American Association for Cancer Research, September 13, 2017.

With the number of cancer cases diagnosed in the United States rising every year, it is vital that the AACR increases public awareness about cancer and the importance of research for improving health and saving lives from cancer. The annual AACR Cancer Progress Report is a cornerstone of these educational efforts and the AACR’s work to advocate for increased funding for the federal agencies that are vital for fueling progress against cancer— in particular, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

The Report is released in September of each year and highlights advances over the past 12 months in the prevention, detection, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. It also includes the personal experiences of cancer survivors who have benefited from these advances. Together with the developments described in the report, these survivor stories provide hope for a much brighter future for cancer patients and their loved ones.

"Cancer Facts and Figures 2017." American Cancer Society, January 2017.

Estimated numbers of new cancer cases for 2017, excluding basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers and in situ carcinomas except urinary bladder.
Estimates are not available for Puerto Rico.

Note: State estimates are offered as a rough guide and should be interpreted with caution. State estimates may not add to US total due to rounding.

2016

"Cancer Facts and Figures 2016." American Cancer Society, January 2016.

Estimated numbers of new cancer cases for 2016, excluding basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers and in situ carcinomas except urinary bladder. Estimates are not available for Puerto Rico.

Note: State estimates are offered as a rough guide and should be interpreted with caution. State estimates may not add to US total due to rounding.

American Cancer Society. "Cancer Treatment & Survivorship Facts & Figures 2016-2017." Atlanta, January 2016.

Cancer Treatment & Survivorship Facts & Figures, a report produced in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute, provides current and future cancer prevalence estimates for the United States, as well as information about treatment patterns, survival, and common concerns for the most prevalent cancers, including side effects of treatment. More than 15.5 million Americans with a history of cancer were alive on January 1, 2016, not including carcinoma in situ (non-invasive cancer) of any site except urinary bladder, and not including basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers.