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Research & Evidence

For women, the 3 most common cancers are breast, lung, and colorectum, which collectively represent one‐half of all cases; breast cancer alone accounts for 30% all new cancer diagnoses in women.
Cancer Statistics, 2018
Siegel, Rebecca L., MPH; Kimbertly D. Miller, MPH; Ahmedin Jemal, DVM, PhD
Wiley Online Library

2016

Berko, Jeff MPH; Goetzel, Ron Z. PhD; Roemer, Enid Chung PhD; Kent, Karen MPH; Marchibroda, Janet MBA. "Results From the Bipartisan Policy Center's CEO Council Physical Activity Challenge to American Business." Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, December 2016.

Physical inactivity is a major public health threat: inactive adults are at an elevated risk of early death, heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and depression. Despite these dire consequences, fewer than half of American adults meet the recommended guidelines for daily physical activity. Sedentary jobs contribute to this problem, but the workplace also presents an opportunity for intervention. 

Bergouignan, Audrey , Kristina T. Legget, Nathan De Jong, Elizabeth Kealey, Janet Nikolovski, Jack L. Groppel, Chris Jordan, Raphaela O’Day, James O. Hill and Daniel H. Bessesen. "Effect of frequent interruptions of prolonged sitting on self-perceived levels of energy, mood, food cravings and cognitive function." International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, November 3, 2016.

While physical activity has been shown to improve cognitive performance and well-being, office workers are essentially sedentary. We compared the effects of physical activity performed as (i) one bout in the morning or (ii) as microbouts spread out across the day to (iii) a day spent sitting, on mood and energy levels and cognitive function.

Song, Mingyang, MD, ScD; Edward Giovannucci, MD, ScD. "Preventable Incidence and Mortality of Carcinoma Associated With Lifestyle Factors Among White Adults in the United States." JAMA Oncology, September 1, 2016.

Lifestyle factors are important for cancer development. However, a recent study has been interpreted to suggest that random mutations during stem cell divisions are the major contributor to human cancer. 

Conclusions and Relevance: A substantial cancer burden may be prevented through lifestyle modification. Primary prevention should remain a priority for cancer control.

Michael C. Fiore, MD, MPH, MBA. "Tobacco Control in the Obama Era — Substantial Progress, Remaining Challenges." New England Journal of Medicine, August 24, 2016.

The steady decline in smoking rates among U.S. adults that began in the early 1960s has acceleratedsubstantially during the 7 years of the Barack Obama presidency.

Moore, PhD, Steven C. MPH; I-Min Lee, MBBS, ScD; Elisabete Weiderpass, PhD; et al. "Association of Leisure-Time Physical Activity With Risk of 26 Types of Cancer in 1.44 Million Adults." Journal of the American Medical Association , June 2016.

Importance  Leisure-time physical activity has been associated with lower risk of heart-disease and all-cause mortality, but its association with risk of cancer is not well understood.

Objective  To determine the association of leisure-time physical activity with incidence of common types of cancer and whether associations vary by body size and/or smoking.

Steven C. Moore, PhD, MPH; I-Min Lee, MBBS, ScD; Elisabete Weiderpass, PhD; et al. "Association of Leisure-Time Physical Activity With Risk of 26 Types of Cancer in 1.44 Million Adults." Journal of the American Medical Association , June 2016.

Importance  Leisure-time physical activity has been associated with lower risk of heart-disease and all-cause mortality, but its association with risk of cancer is not well understood.

Objective  To determine the association of leisure-time physical activity with incidence of common types of cancer and whether associations vary by body size and/or smoking.

"Winning With Wellness." US Chamber of Commerce, May 5, 2016.

Compelling evidence exists that wellness programs work and prevention pays off when done well and in the right ways. This publication delineates the attributes of successful and effective workplace wellness programs, discusses how workplace wellness can be a win-win for employers and employees, and outlines the legal and regulatory parameters associated with such programs. Significant converging financial, political, and cultural trends drive the importance and the urgent need for more pervasive employer-driven, evidence-based workplace wellness initiatives.

Azvolinsky, Anna . "Unraveling How Obesity Fuels Cancer." Oxford Academic, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, April 2, 2016.

“We are getting more and more precise about the different risk factors for the various subtypes of cancer,” said Stephen Hursting, Ph.D., M.P.H., professor in the department of nutrition at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. One established factor is obesity, now well linked to at least ten cancers, including pancreatic, colorectal, endometrial, and hormone receptor–positive, postmenopausal breast cancer. 

American Cancer Society. "Cancer Treatment & Survivorship Facts & Figures 2016-2017." Atlanta, January 2016.

Cancer Treatment & Survivorship Facts & Figures, a report produced in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute, provides current and future cancer prevalence estimates for the United States, as well as information about treatment patterns, survival, and common concerns for the most prevalent cancers, including side effects of treatment. More than 15.5 million Americans with a history of cancer were alive on January 1, 2016, not including carcinoma in situ (non-invasive cancer) of any site except urinary bladder, and not including basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers. 

Fabius, Raymond MD, Ronald R. Loeppke, MD, MPH, Todd Hohn, CSP, Dan Fabius, DO, Barry Eisenberg, CAE, Doris L. Konicki, MHS, and Paul Larson, MS. "Tracking the Market Performance of Companies That Integrate a Culture of Health and Safety." Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, January 1, 2016.

This article tests the hypothesis that the stockmarket performance of companies that achieve high-scoring assessments in either health or safety during the Corporate Health Achievement Award (CHAA) process will be superior to average market-index performance.

Ron Z. Goetzel, PhD, Raymond Fabius, MD, Dan Fabius, DO, Enid C. Roemer, PhD, Nicole Thornton, BA, Rebecca K. Kelly, PhD, RD, and Kenneth R. Pelletier, PhD, MD (hc). "The Stock Performance of C. Everett Koop Award Winners Compared With the Standard & Poor's 500 Index." American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, January 1, 2016.

Workplace health promotion programs are designed to improve the health and well-being of employees and their dependents. Companies that excel in their workplace wellness efforts can apply for and win recognition through numerous vehicles including earning the C. Everett Koop National Health Award (Koop Award). The Koop Award is conferred annually by The Health Project, a nonprofit organization founded in 1994 to promote employer achievements in improving population health cost-effectively. The hypothesis tested was that companies applying for and winning the Koop Award, thereby earning the distinction of having outstanding workplace health promotion (wellness) programs, would realize financial gains that extend beyond those simply offering traditional employee benefit programs.

"Cancer Facts and Figures 2016." American Cancer Society, January 2016.

Estimated numbers of new cancer cases for 2016, excluding basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers and in situ carcinomas except urinary bladder. Estimates are not available for Puerto Rico.

Note: State estimates are offered as a rough guide and should be interpreted with caution. State estimates may not add to US total due to rounding.

2015

Towne, Samuel D. Jr., PhD, MPH, CPH, Kelsey E. Anderson, Matthew Lee Smith, Deborah Vollmer Dahlke, Debra Kellstedt, Ninfa Pena Purcell and Marcia G. Ory. "Changing organizational culture: using the CEO cancer Gold Standard policy initiatives to promote health and wellness at a school of public health." BMC Public Health, September 3, 2015.

Worksite wellness initiatives for health promotion and health education have demonstrated effectiveness in improving employee health and wellness. 

Polinski, Jennifer M., ScD, MPH; Benjamin Howell, PhD, MPP; Troyen A. Brennan, MD, JD, MPH; William H. Shrank, MD, MSHS . "Impact of the CVS tobacco sales removal on smoking cessation: when CVS Health quit tobacco, many smokers quit, too." CVS Health, 2015.

The study, conducted by the CVS Health Research Institute, evaluated cigarette pack purchases at drug, food, big box, dollar, convenience and gas station retailers in the eight months after CVS Pharmacy stopped selling tobacco products.

Thornburg, Jonathan; Quentin Malloy, Seung-Hyun Cho, William Studabaker, and Youn Ok Lee. "Exhaled Electronic Cigarette Emissions: What’s Your Secondhand Exposure? ." RTI Press, Research Briefs, March 2015.

As e-cigarette use rapidly proliferates in the United States, research is needed to determine potential health risks posed by emissions from e-cigarettes. Currently, little scientific evidence on the toxicant exposures posed by e-cigarette use is available, particularly for a non-user’s secondhand exposures in public places.

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