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Research & Evidence

The rapid entry of new vaping devices on the market... will require continual updates and modification of strategies to keep adolescents from vaping and its associated negative health effects.
Adolescent Vaping and Nicotine Use in 2017–2018 — U.S. National Estimates
Patrick, Megan E., PhD; Richard Miech, PhD; Lloyd Johnston, PhD; Patrick M. O’Malley, PhD; Jerald G. Bachman, PhD
New England Journal of Medicine

2004

"A National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship: Advancing Public Health Strategies ." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, April 2004.

Cancer is the second leading cause of death among adults in the United States and affects an estimated 1 in 3 individuals in their lifetime, either through their own diagnosis or that of a loved one (ACS, 2003). Increasing innovations in medical technology have led to earlier diagnoses and improved treatment of many cancers, resulting in more people diagnosed with cancer surviving each year. Currently, approximately 62% of cancer survivors are expected to live at least 5 years after diagnosis (ACS, 2003). As of January 2000, there were approximately 9.6 million cancer survivors in the United States (NCI, 2003a). This estimate includes people diagnosed with cancer but does not include others affected by a diagnosis, such as family members and friends. 

2002

Fichtenberg, Caroline M.; Stanton A Glantz. "Effect of smoke­free workplaces on smoking behaviour: systematic review." British Medical Journal, March 21, 2002.

Passive smoking is linked with cancer, heart disease, respiratory illness and is the leading source of indoor airpollution. In the United States, passive smoking has been linked to the deaths of at least 53 000 non-smokers each year, about one non-smoker for each eight smokers that tobacco kills. 

We investigated the effects of smoke-free workplaces on cigarette consumption and compared these effects with those obtained by raising taxes.

2000

Arnold Barnett, PhD; Howard Birnbaum, PhD; Pierre-Yves Cremieux, PhD; A. Mark Fendrick, MD; and Mitchell Slavin, PharmD. "The Costs of Cancer to a Major Employer in the United States: A Case-Control Analysis." The American Journal of Managed Care, November 2000.

Reliable data on the costs and outcomes of different healthcare interventions are essential for efficient distribution of healthcare resources and evaluation of quality of healthcare.The National Institutes of Health estimates total annual costs for cancer in the United States at $107 billion annually. These cancer costs represented roughly 5% of all healthcare expenditures in 1995. These high healthcare costs translate into significantexpenses for US employers. As cancer treatment improves and the number of patients in remission or recovery increases, the management of cancer care is becoming increasingly important. This trend has led managed care organizations to focus on assessing the likely costs of cancer care and outcomes for different types of cancer.

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